Una precisazione sul conteggio delle EVA della ISS

L'astronauta Luca Parmitano coinvolto in un'EVA.

Le EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity), o attività extraveicolari, rappresentano senza dubbio l’aspetto più spettacolare della professione di astronauta. Per questo motivo sono anche fra gli incarichi più ambiti e desiderati fra chi intraprende questo mestiere. Tuttavia, non è certo per far vivere, a chi le sperimenta direttamente e a chi le osserva da spettatore, delle esperienze assolutamente impareggiabili che le EVA sono state effettuate in praticamente tutti i programmi spaziali della storia, fatti salvi solo i primi pionieristici voli orbitali.

Poter uscire, con la necessaria sicurezza, dal proprio veicolo spaziale rappresenta infatti il requisito imprescindibile per poter esplorare gli altri mondi del nostro Sistema Solare e proprio questo è stato il motivo primario della loro nascita, sia da parte russa che statunitense. Nel corso delle prime EVA si sono messi a punto materiali, strumenti e tecniche che hanno visto il loro compimento nelle missioni lunari del programma Apollo, mentre i russi hanno dovuto gettare la spugna prima di poterle anche loro portare a compimento sul suolo selenico.

La capacità di uscire nel vuoto dello spazio indossando una sofisticata tuta pressurizzata è stata successivamente sfruttata per costruire, manutenere e riparare le più disparate strutture spaziali (satelliti, telescopi, moduli abitativi, intere stazioni spaziali).

La prima storica EVA è stata quella effettuata dal russo Leonov nel marzo 1965, seguita nel giugno dello stesso anno da quella dello statunitense White.

Leonov ripreso all'esterno del veicolo Voschod 2.
Leonov ripreso all’esterno del veicolo Voschod 2.

A partire dal 1995 sono state introdotte le cosiddette IVA (Intra Vehicular Activity) dove gli astronauti utilizzano le stesse tute per EVA ma senza uscire fisicamente dal loro veicolo o modulo abitativo. Le IVA si rendono solitamente necessarie quando un ambiente di lavoro deve essere depressurizzato per poter operare particolari modifiche, operazioni o riparazioni.

Durante i programmi NASA Gemini e Apollo sono state inoltre effettuate delle attività che stanno un po’ a metà fra una IVA e una EVA. Si tratta delle cosiddette Stand-up EVA, dove l’astronauta esce solo parzialmente dal portello che dà accesso allo spazio esterno. Solitamente si rendono necessarie quando la zona di lavoro prevista è talmente vicina al portello di uscita che è sufficiente sporgersi da esso per compierlo, consentendo all’astronauta di rimanere con la parte bassa del corpo all’interno del proprio veicolo per tutta la durata delle operazioni.

Pur essendo, a nostro modo di vedere, tre distinte tipologie di lavoro in ambiente depressurizzato, NASA ha deciso di non distinguerle più fra loro, applicando una definizione che classifica sotto l’acronimo EVA qualsiasi attività svolta da un membro dell’equipaggio indossando una tuta spaziale in un ambiente depressurizzato o in ambiente spaziale.
Questa scelta di NASA ha portato a qualche confusione quando internamente alla redazione di AstronautiNEWS abbiamo iniziato a compilare le statistiche relative ai vari astronauti, per tener conto di chi tra essi avesse passato più tempo “all’esterno”. L’esempio più recente è rappresentato dal programma ISS, dove nel 2001 e nel 2009 sono state effettuate due IVA, mai menzionate nei comunicati stampa di NASA ma che vengono comunque inserite nel conteggio delle EVA totali, andando di conseguenza ad “inquinare” questo numero.

Ecco dunque qui di seguito la lista di tutte le EVA effettuate nel programma ISS svoltesi completamente all’esterno del veicolo spaziale.

Nº EVA Missione EV1 Member EV2 Member Durata in ore Inizio (UTC) Fine (UTC) Portello
1 STS 88 Jerry Ross James Newman 7,35 07-12-98 22:10 08-12-98 05:31 Endeavour
2 STS 88 Jerry Ross James Newman 7,03 09-12-98 20:33 10-12-98 03:35 Endeavour
3 STS 88 Jerry Ross James Newman 6,98 12-12-98 20:33 13-12-98 03:32 Endeavour
4 STS 96 Tamara Jernigan Daniel Barry 7,92 30-05-99 02:56 30-05-99 10:51 Discovery
5 STS 101 James Voss Jeffrey Williams 6,73 22-05-00 01:48 22-05-00 08:32 Atlantis
6 STS 106 Edward Lu Jurij Malenčenko 6,23 11-09-00 04:47 11-09-00 11:01 Atlantis
7 STS 92 Leroy Chiao William McArthur 6,47 15-10-00 14:27 15-10-00 20:55 Discovery
8 STS 92 Michael Lopez-Alegria Peter Wisoff 7,12 16-10-00 14:15 16-10-00 21:22 Discovery
9 STS 92 Leroy Chiao William McArthur 6,8 17-10-00 14:30 17-10-00 21:18 Discovery
10 STS 92 Michael Lopez-Alegria Peter Wisoff 6,93 18-10-00 15:00 18-10-00 21:56 Discovery
11 STS 97 Joseph Tanner Carlos Noriega 7,55 03-12-00 18:35 04-12-00 02:08 Endeavour
12 STS 97 Joseph Tanner Carlos Noriega 6,62 05-12-00 17:21 05-12-00 23:58 Endeavour
13 STS 97 Joseph Tanner Carlos Noriega 5,17 07-12-00 16:13 07-12-00 21:23 Endeavour
14 STS 98 Thomas Jones Robert Curbeam 7,57 10-02-01 15:50 10-02-01 23:24 Atlantis
15 STS 98 Thomas Jones Robert Curbeam 6,83 12-02-01 15:59 12-02-01 22:49 Atlantis
16 STS 98 Thomas Jones Robert Curbeam 5,42 14-02-01 14:48 14-02-01 20:13 Atlantis
17 STS 102 James Voss Susan Helms 8,93 11-03-01 05:12 11-03-01 14:08 Discovery
18 STS 102 Andrew Thomas Paul Richards 6,35 13-03-01 05:23 13-03-01 11:44 Discovery
19 STS 100 Scott Parazynski Chris Hadfield 7,17 22-04-01 11:45 22-04-01 18:55 Endeavour
20 STS 100 Scott Parazynski Chris Hadfield 7,67 24-04-01 12:34 24-04-01 20:14 Endeavour
21 STS 104 Michael Gernhardt James Reilly 5,98 15-07-01 03:10 15-07-01 09:09 Atlantis
22 STS 104 Michael Gernhardt James Reilly 6,48 18-07-01 03:04 18-07-01 09:33 Atlantis
23 STS 104 Michael Gernhardt James Reilly 4,03 21-07-01 04:35 21-07-01 08:37 Quest
24 STS 105 Daniel Barry Patrick Forrester 6,27 16-08-01 13:58 16-08-01 20:14 Discovery
25 STS 105 Daniel Barry Patrick Forrester 5,48 18-08-01 13:42 18-08-01 19:11 Discovery
26 Expedition 03 Vladimir Dežurov Michail Tjurin 4,97 08-10-01 14:24 08-10-01 19:22 Pirs
27 Expedition 03 Vladimir Dežurov Michail Tjurin 5,85 15-10-01 09:17 15-10-01 15:08 Pirs
28 Expedition 03 Vladimir Dežurov Franklin Culbertson 5,08 12-11-01 21:41 13-11-01 02:46 Pirs
29 Expedition 03 Vladimir Dežurov Michail Tjurin 2,77 03-12-01 13:20 03-12-01 16:06 Pirs
30 STS 108 Linda Godwin Daniel Tani 4,2 10-12-01 17:52 10-12-01 22:04 Endeavour
31 Expedition 04 Jurij Onufrienko Carl Walz 6,05 14-01-02 20:59 15-01-02 03:02 Pirs
32 Expedition 04 Jurij Onufrienko Daniel Bursch 5,98 25-01-02 15:19 25-01-02 21:18 Pirs
33 Expedition 04 Carl Walz Daniel Bursch 5,78 20-02-02 11:38 20-02-02 17:25 Quest
34 STS 110 Steven Smith Rex Walheim 7,8 11-04-02 14:36 11-04-02 22:24 Quest
35 STS 110 Jerry Ross Lee Morin 7,5 13-04-02 14:09 13-04-02 21:39 Quest
36 STS 110 Steven Smith Rex Walheim 6,45 14-04-02 13:48 14-04-02 20:15 Quest
37 STS 110 Jerry Ross Lee Morin 6,62 16-04-02 14:29 16-04-02 21:06 Quest
38 STS 111 Franklin Chang Diaz Philippe Perrin 7,23 09-06-02 15:27 09-06-02 22:41 Quest
39 STS 111 Franklin Chang Diaz Philippe Perrin 5 11-06-02 15:20 11-06-02 20:20 Quest
40 STS 111 Franklin Chang Diaz Philippe Perrin 7,28 13-06-02 15:16 13-06-02 22:33 Quest
41 Expedition 05 Valerij Korzun Peggy Whitson 4,38 16-08-02 09:25 16-08-02 13:48 Pirs
42 Expedition 05 Valerij Korzun Sergej Treščëv 5,35 26-08-02 05:27 26-08-02 10:48 Pirs
43 STS 112 David Wolf Piers Sellers 7,02 10-10-02 15:21 10-10-02 22:22 Quest
44 STS 112 David Wolf Piers Sellers 6,07 12-10-02 14:31 12-10-02 20:35 Quest
45 STS 112 David Wolf Piers Sellers 6,6 14-10-02 14:08 14-10-02 20:44 Quest
46 STS 113 Michael Lopez-Alegria John Herrington 6,75 26-11-02 19:49 27-11-02 02:34 Quest
47 STS 113 Michael Lopez-Alegria John Herrington 6,17 28-11-02 18:36 29-11-02 00:46 Quest
48 STS 113 Michael Lopez-Alegria John Herrington 7 30-11-02 19:25 01-12-02 02:25 Quest
49 Expedition 06 Kenneth Bowersox Donald Pettit 6,85 15-01-03 12:50 15-01-03 19:41 Quest
50 Expedition 06 Kenneth Bowersox Donald Pettit 6,43 08-04-03 12:40 08-04-03 19:06 Quest
51 Expedition 08 Michael Foale Alexander Kaleri 3,92 26-02-04 21:17 27-02-04 01:12 Pirs
52 Expedition 09 Gennadij Padalka Michael Fincke 0,22 24-06-04 21:57 24-06-04 22:10 Pirs
53 Expedition 09 Gennadij Padalka Michael Fincke 5,67 30-06-04 21:19 01-07-04 02:59 Pirs
54 Expedition 09 Gennadij Padalka Michael Fincke 4,5 03-08-04 06:58 03-08-04 11:28 Pirs
55 Expedition 09 Gennadij Padalka Michael Fincke 5,35 03-09-04 16:43 03-09-04 22:04 Pirs
56 Expedition 10 Leroy Chiao Saližan Šaripov 5,47 26-01-05 07:43 26-01-05 13:11 Pirs
57 Expedition 10 Leroy Chiao Saližan Šaripov 4,5 28-03-05 06:25 28-03-05 10:55 Pirs
58 STS 114 Stephen Robinson Soichi Noguchi 6,83 30-07-05 05:46 30-07-05 12:36 Discovery
59 STS 114 Stephen Robinson Soichi Noguchi 7,23 01-08-05 04:44 01-08-05 11:58 Discovery
60 STS 114 Stephen Robinson Soichi Noguchi 6,02 03-08-05 04:14 03-08-05 10:15 Discovery
61 Expedition 11 Sergej Krikalëv John Phillips 4,97 18-08-05 19:02 19-08-05 00:00 Pirs
62 Expedition 12 William McArthur Valerij Tokarev 5,37 07-11-05 15:32 07-11-05 20:54 Quest
63 Expedition 12 William McArthur Valerij Tokarev 5,72 03-02-06 09:44 03-02-06 15:27 Pirs
64 Expedition 13 Pavel Vinogradov Jeffrey Williams 6,52 01-06-06 23:48 02-06-06 06:19 Pirs
65 STS 121 Piers Sellers Michael Fossum 7,52 08-07-06 13:17 08-07-06 20:48 Quest
66 STS 121 Piers Sellers Michael Fossum 6,78 10-07-06 07:14 10-07-06 14:01 Quest
67 STS 121 Piers Sellers Michael Fossum 7,18 12-07-06 06:20 12-07-06 13:31 Quest
68 Expedition 13 Jeffrey Williams Thomas Reiter 5,9 03-08-06 14:04 03-08-06 19:58 Quest
69 STS 115 Joseph Tanner Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper 5,43 12-09-06 10:17 12-09-06 15:43 Quest
70 STS 115 Daniel Burbank Steven MacLean 7,18 13-09-06 09:05 13-09-06 16:16 Quest
71 STS 115 Joseph Tanner Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper 6,7 15-09-06 10:00 15-09-06 16:42 Quest
72 Expedition 14 Michail Tjurin Michael Lopez-Alegria 5,63 22-11-06 23:17 23-11-06 04:55 Pirs
73 STS 116 Robert Curbeam Christer Fuglesang 6,6 12-12-06 20:31 13-12-06 03:07 Quest
74 STS 116 Robert Curbeam Christer Fuglesang 5 14-12-06 19:41 15-12-06 00:41 Quest
75 STS 116 Robert Curbeam Sunita Williams 7,53 16-12-06 19:25 17-12-06 02:57 Quest
76 STS 116 Robert Curbeam Christer Fuglesang 6,63 18-12-06 19:00 19-12-06 01:38 Quest
77 Expedition 14 Michael Lopez-Alegria Sunita Williams 7,92 31-01-07 15:14 31-01-07 23:09 Quest
78 Expedition 14 Michael Lopez-Alegria Sunita Williams 7,18 04-02-07 13:38 04-02-07 20:49 Quest
79 Expedition 14 Michael Lopez-Alegria Sunita Williams 6,67 08-02-07 13:26 08-02-07 20:06 Quest
80 Expedition 14 Michael Lopez-Alegria Michail Tjurin 6,3 22-02-07 10:27 22-02-07 16:45 Pirs
81 Expedition 15 Oleg Kotov Fëdor Jurčichin 5,42 30-05-07 19:05 31-05-07 00:30 Pirs
82 Expedition 15 Oleg Kotov Fëdor Jurčichin 5,62 06-06-07 14:23 06-06-07 20:00 Pirs
83 STS 117 James Reilly John Olivas 6,25 11-06-07 20:02 12-06-07 02:17 Quest
84 STS 117 Patrick Forrester Steven Swanson 7,27 13-06-07 18:28 14-06-07 01:44 Quest
85 STS 117 James Reilly John Olivas 7,97 15-06-07 17:24 16-06-07 01:22 Quest
86 STS 117 Patrick Forrester Steven Swanson 6,48 17-06-07 16:25 17-06-07 22:54 Quest
87 Expedition 15 Clayton Anderson Fëdor Jurčichin 7,68 23-07-07 10:25 23-07-07 18:06 Quest
88 STS 118 Richard Mastracchio Dafydd Williams 6,28 11-08-07 16:28 11-08-07 22:45 Quest
89 STS 118 Richard Mastracchio Dafydd Williams 6,47 13-08-07 15:32 13-08-07 22:00 Quest
90 STS 118 Richard Mastracchio Clayton Anderson 5,47 15-08-07 14:37 15-08-07 20:05 Quest
91 STS 118 Clayton Anderson Dafydd Williams 5,03 18-08-07 14:17 18-08-07 19:19 Quest
92 STS 120 Scott Parazynski Douglas Wheelock 6,23 26-10-07 10:02 26-10-07 16:16 Quest
93 STS 120 Scott Parazynski Daniel Tani 6,55 28-10-07 09:32 28-10-07 16:05 Quest
94 STS 120 Scott Parazynski Douglas Wheelock 7,13 30-10-07 08:45 30-10-07 15:53 Quest
95 STS 120 Scott Parazynski Douglas Wheelock 7,32 03-11-07 10:03 03-11-07 17:22 Quest
96 Expedition 16 Peggy Whitson Jurij Malenčenko 6,92 09-11-07 09:54 09-11-07 16:49 Quest
97 Expedition 16 Peggy Whitson Daniel Tani 7,27 20-11-07 10:10 20-11-07 17:26 Quest
98 Expedition 16 Peggy Whitson Daniel Tani 7,07 24-11-07 09:50 24-11-07 16:54 Quest
99 Expedition 16 Peggy Whitson Daniel Tani 6,93 18-12-07 09:50 18-12-07 16:46 Quest
100 Expedition 16 Peggy Whitson Daniel Tani 7,17 30-01-08 09:56 30-01-08 17:06 Quest
101 STS 122 Rex Walheim Stanley Love 7,97 11-02-08 14:13 11-02-08 22:11 Quest
102 STS 122 Rex Walheim Hans Schlegel 6,75 13-02-08 14:27 13-02-08 21:12 Quest
103 STS 122 Rex Walheim Stanley Love 7,42 15-02-08 13:07 15-02-08 20:32 Quest
104 STS 123 Richard Linnehan Garrett Reisman 7,02 14-03-08 01:18 14-03-08 08:19 Quest
105 STS 123 Richard Linnehan Michael Foreman 7,13 15-03-08 23:49 16-03-08 06:57 Quest
106 STS 123 Richard Linnehan Robert Behnken 6,88 17-03-08 22:51 18-03-08 05:44 Quest
107 STS 123 Michael Foreman Robert Behnken 6,4 20-03-08 22:04 21-03-08 04:28 Quest
108 STS 123 Michael Foreman Robert Behnken 6,03 22-03-08 20:34 23-03-08 02:36 Quest
109 STS 124 Michael Fossum Ronald Garan, Jr. 6,8 03-06-08 16:22 03-06-08 23:10 Quest
110 STS 124 Michael Fossum Ronald Garan, Jr. 7,18 05-06-08 15:04 05-06-08 22:15 Quest
111 STS 124 Michael Fossum Ronald Garan, Jr. 6,55 08-06-08 13:55 08-06-08 20:28 Quest
112 Expedition 17 Sergej Volkov Oleg Kononenko 6,3 10-07-08 18:48 11-07-08 01:06 Pirs
113 Expedition 17 Sergej Volkov Oleg Kononenko 5,9 15-07-08 17:08 15-07-08 23:02 Pirs
114 STS 126 Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper Stephen Bowen 6,87 18-11-08 18:09 19-11-08 01:01 Quest
115 STS 126 Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper Shane Kimbrough 6,75 20-11-08 17:58 21-11-08 00:43 Quest
116 STS 126 Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper Stephen Bowen 6,95 22-11-08 18:01 23-11-08 00:58 Quest
117 STS 126 Stephen Bowen Shane Kimbrough 6,12 24-11-08 18:24 25-11-08 00:31 Quest
118 Expedition 18 Jurij Lončakov Michael Fincke 5,63 23-12-08 00:51 23-12-08 06:29 Pirs
119 Expedition 18 Jurij Lončakov Michael Fincke 4,82 10-03-09 16:22 10-03-09 21:11 Pirs
120 STS 119 Steven Swanson Richard Arnold 6,12 19-03-09 17:16 19-03-09 23:23 Quest
121 STS 119 Steven Swanson Joseph Acaba 6,5 21-03-09 16:51 21-03-09 23:21 Quest
122 STS 119 Joseph Acaba Richard Arnold 6,45 23-03-09 15:37 23-03-09 22:04 Quest
123 Expedition 20 Gennadij Padalka Michael Barratt 4,9 05-06-09 07:52 05-06-09 12:46 Pirs
124 STS 127 David Wolf Timothy Kopra 5,53 18-07-09 16:19 18-07-09 21:51 Quest
125 STS 127 David Wolf Thomas Marshburn 6,88 20-07-09 15:27 20-07-09 22:20 Quest
126 STS 127 David Wolf Christopher Cassidy 5,98 22-07-09 14:32 22-07-09 20:31 Quest
127 STS 127 Thomas Marshburn Christopher Cassidy 7,2 24-07-09 13:54 24-07-09 21:06 Quest
128 STS 127 Thomas Marshburn Christopher Cassidy 4,9 27-07-09 11:33 27-07-09 16:27 Quest
129 STS 128 John Olivas Nicole Stott 6,58 01-09-09 21:49 02-09-09 04:24 Quest
130 STS 128 John Olivas Christer Fuglesang 6,65 03-09-09 22:12 04-09-09 04:51 Quest
131 STS 128 John Olivas Christer Fuglesang 7,02 05-09-09 20:39 06-09-09 03:40 Quest
132 STS 129 Michael Foreman Robert Satcher 6,62 19-11-09 14:24 19-11-09 21:01 Quest
133 STS 129 Michael Foreman Randolph Bresnik 6,13 21-11-09 14:31 21-11-09 20:39 Quest
134 STS 129 Robert Satcher Randolph Bresnik 5,7 23-11-09 13:24 23-11-09 19:06 Quest
135 Expedition 22 Oleg Kotov Maksim Suraev 5,73 14-01-10 10:05 14-01-10 15:49 Pirs
136 STS 130 Robert Behnken Nicholas Patrick 6,53 12-02-10 02:17 12-02-10 08:49 Quest
137 STS 130 Robert Behnken Nicholas Patrick 5,9 14-02-10 02:20 14-02-10 08:14 Quest
138 STS 130 Robert Behnken Nicholas Patrick 5,8 17-02-10 02:15 17-02-10 08:03 Quest
139 STS 131 Richard Mastracchio Clayton Anderson 6,45 09-04-10 05:31 09-04-10 11:58 Quest
140 STS 131 Richard Mastracchio Clayton Anderson 7,43 11-04-10 05:30 11-04-10 12:56 Quest
141 STS 131 Richard Mastracchio Clayton Anderson 6,4 13-04-10 06:14 13-04-10 12:38 Quest
142 STS 132 Stephen Bowen Garrett Reisman 7,42 17-05-10 11:54 17-05-10 19:19 Quest
143 STS 132 Stephen Bowen Michael Good 7,15 19-05-10 10:38 19-05-10 17:47 Quest
144 STS 132 Michael Good Garrett Reisman 6,77 21-05-10 10:27 21-05-10 17:13 Quest
145 Expedition 24 Fëdor Jurčichin Michail Kornienko 6,7 27-07-10 04:11 27-07-10 10:53 Pirs
146 Expedition 24 Douglas Wheelock Tracy Caldwell 8,05 07-08-10 11:19 07-08-10 19:22 Quest
147 Expedition 24 Douglas Wheelock Tracy Caldwell 7,43 11-08-10 12:27 11-08-10 19:53 Quest
148 Expedition 24 Douglas Wheelock Tracy Caldwell 7,33 16-08-10 10:20 16-08-10 17:40 Quest
149 Expedition 25 Fëdor Jurčichin Oleg Skripočka 6,45 15-11-10 14:55 15-11-10 21:22 Pirs
150 Expedition 26 Oleg Skripočka Dmitrij Kondrat’ev 5,38 21-01-11 14:29 21-01-11 19:52 Pirs
151 Expedition 26 Oleg Skripočka Dmitrij Kondrat’ev 4,85 16-02-11 13:30 16-02-11 18:21 Pirs
152 STS 133 Stephen Bowen Alvin Drew 6,57 28-02-11 15:46 28-02-11 22:20 Quest
153 STS 133 Stephen Bowen Alvin Drew 6,23 02-03-11 15:42 02-03-11 21:56 Quest
154 STS 134 Andrew Feustel Gregory Chamitoff 6,32 20-05-11 07:10 20-05-11 13:29 Quest
155 STS 134 Michael Fincke Andrew Feustel 8,12 22-05-11 06:05 22-05-11 14:12 Quest
156 STS 134 Michael Fincke Andrew Feustel 6,9 25-05-11 05:43 25-05-11 12:37 Quest
157 STS 134 Michael Fincke Gregory Chamitoff 7,4 27-05-11 04:15 27-05-11 11:39 Quest
158 Expedition 28 Michael Fossum Ronald Garan, Jr. 6,52 12-07-11 13:22 12-07-11 19:53 Quest
159 Expedition 28 Sergej Volkov Aleksandr Samokutjaev 6,38 03-08-11 14:50 03-08-11 21:13 Pirs
160 Expedition 31 Oleg Kononenko Anton Škaplerov 6,27 16-02-12 14:31 16-02-12 20:47 Pirs
161 Expedition 32 Gennadij Padalka Jurij Malenčenko 5,85 20-08-12 15:37 20-08-12 21:28 Pirs
162 Expedition 32 Sunita Williams Akihiko Hoshide 8,28 30-08-12 12:16 30-08-12 20:33 Quest
163 Expedition 32 Sunita Williams Akihiko Hoshide 6,47 05-09-12 11:06 05-09-12 17:34 Quest
164 Expedition 33 Sunita Williams Akihiko Hoshide 6,63 01-11-12 12:29 01-11-12 19:07 Quest
165 Expedition 35 Pavel Vinogradov Roman Romanenko 6,63 19-04-13 14:03 19-04-13 20:41 Pirs
166 Expedition 35 Christopher Cassidy Thomas Marshburn 5,5 11-05-13 12:44 11-05-13 18:14 Quest
167 Expedition 36 Fëdor Jurčichin Aleksander Misurkin 6,57 24-06-13 13:32 24-06-13 20:06 Pirs
168 Expedition 36 Christopher Cassidy Luca Parmitano 6,12 09-07-13 12:02 09-07-13 18:09 Quest
169 Expedition 36 Christopher Cassidy Luca Parmitano 1,53 16-07-13 11:57 16-07-13 13:29 Quest
170 Expedition 36 Fëdor Jurčichin Aleksander Misurkin 7,48 16-08-13 14:36 16-08-13 22:05 Pirs
171 Expedition 36 Fëdor Jurčichin Aleksander Misurkin 5,97 22-08-13 11:34 22-08-13 17:32 Pirs
172 Expedition 37 Oleg Kotov Sergej Rjazanskij 5,83 09-11-13 14:34 09-11-13 20:24 Pirs
173 Expedition 38 Richard Mastracchio Michael Hopkins 5,47 21-12-13 12:01 21-12-13 17:29 Quest
174 Expedition 38 Richard Mastracchio Michael Hopkins 7,5 24-12-13 11:53 24-12-13 19:23 Quest
175 Expedition 38 Oleg Kotov Sergej Rjazanskij 8,12 27-12-13 13:00 27-12-13 21:07 Pirs
176 Expedition 38 Oleg Kotov Sergej Rjazanskij 6,13 27-01-14 14:00 27-01-14 20:08 Pirs
177 Expedition 39 Richard Mastracchio Steven Swanson 1,6 23-04-14 13:56 23-04-14 15:32 Quest
178 Expedition 40 Aleksandr Skvorcov Oleg Artem’ev 7,38 19-06-14 14:10 19-06-14 21:33 Pirs
179 Expedition 40 Aleksandr Skvorcov Oleg Artem’ev 5,18 18-08-14 14:02 18-08-14 19:13 Pirs
180 Expedition 41 Gregory Wiseman Alexander Gerst 6,22 07-10-14 12:30 07-10-14 18:43 Quest
181 Expedition 41 Gregory Wiseman Barry Wilmore 6,57 15-10-14 12:16 15-10-14 18:50 Quest
182 Expedition 41 Maksim Suraev Aleksander Samokutjaev 3,63 22-10-14 13:28 22-10-14 17:06 Pirs
183 Expedition 42 Barry Wilmore Terry Virts 6,68 21-02-15 12:45 21-02-15 19:26 Quest
184 Expedition 42 Barry Wilmore Terry Virts 6,72 25-02-15 11:51 25-02-15 18:34 Quest
185 Expedition 42 Barry Wilmore Terry Virts 5,63 01-03-15 11:52 01-03-15 17:30 Quest
186 Expedition 44 Gennadij Padalka Michail Kornienko 5,52 10-08-15 14:20 10-08-15 19:51 Pirs
187 Expedition 45 Scott Kelly Kjell Lindgren 7,27 28-10-15 12:03 28-10-15 19:19 Quest
188 Expedition 45 Scott Kelly Kjell Lindgren 7,8 06-11-15 11:22 06-11-15 19:10 Quest
189 Expedition 46 Scott Kelly Timothy Kopra 3,27 21-12-15 12:45 21-12-15 16:01 Quest
190 Expedition 46 Timothy Kopra Timothy Peake 4,72 15-01-16 12:48 15-01-16 17:31 Quest
191 Expedition 46 Jurij Malenčenko Sergej Volkov 4,75 03-02-16 12:55 03-02-16 17:40 Pirs
192 Expedition 48 Jeffrey Williams Kathleen Rubins 5,97 19-08-16 12:04 19-08-16 18:02 Quest
193 Expedition 48 Jeffrey Williams Kathleen Rubins 6,8 01-09-16 11:53 01-09-16 18:41 Quest
194 Expedition 50 Shane Kimbrough Peggy Whitson 6,53 06-01-17 12:23 06-01-17 18:55 Quest
195 Expedition 50 Shane Kimbrough Thomas Pesquet 5,97 13-01-17 11:22 13-01-17 17:20 Quest
196 Expedition 50 Shane Kimbrough Thomas Pesquet 6,57 24-03-17 11:24 24-03-17 17:58 Quest
197 Expedition 50 Shane Kimbrough Peggy Whitson 7,07 30-03-17 11:29 30-03-17 18:33 Quest
198 Expedition 51 Peggy Whitson Jack Fischer 4,22 12-05-17 13:08 12-05-17 17:21 Quest
199 Expedition 51 Peggy Whitson Jack Fischer 2,77 23-05-17 11:20 23-05-17 14:06 Quest
200 Expedition 52 Fëdor Jurčichin Sergej Rjazanskij 7,57 17-08-17 14:36 17-08-17 22:10 Pirs
201 Expedition 53 Randolph Bresnik Mark Vande Hei 6,92 05-10-17 12:05 05-10-17 19:00 Quest
202 Expedition 53 Randolph Bresnik Mark Vande Hei 6,43 10-10-17 11:56 10-10-17 18:22 Quest
203 Expedition 53 Randolph Bresnik Joseph Acaba 6,82 20-10-17 11:47 20-10-17 18:36 Quest
204 Expedition 54 Mark Vande Hei Scott Tingle 7,4 23-01-18 11:49 23-01-18 19:13 Quest
205 Expedition 54 Aleksander Misurkin Anton Škaplerov 8,22 02-02-18 15:34 02-02-18 23:47 Pirs
206 Expedition 54 Mark Vande Hei Norishige Kanai 5,95 16-02-18 12:00 16-02-18 17:57 Quest
207 Expedition 55 Andrew Feustel Richard Arnold 6,17 29-03-18 13:33 29-03-18 19:43 Quest
208 Expedition 55 Andrew Feustel Richard Arnold 6,52 16-05-18 11:39 16-05-18 18:10 Quest
209 Expedition 55 Andrew Feustel Richard Arnold 6,82 14-06-18 12:06 14-06-18 18:55 Quest
210 Expedition 56 Oleg Artem’ev Sergej Prokop’ev 7,77 15-08-18 16:17 16-08-18 00:03 Pirs
211 Expedition 57 Oleg Kononenko Sergej Prokop’ev 7,75 11-12-18 15:59 11-12-18 23:44 Pirs
212 Expedition 59 Anne McClain Tyler Hague 6,65 22-03-19 12:01 22-03-19 18:40 Quest
213 Expedition 59 Tyler Hague Christina Hammock 6,75 29-03-19 11:42 29-03-19 18:27 Quest
214 Expedition 59 Anne McClain David Saint-Jacques 6,48 08-04-19 11:31 08-04-19 18:00 Quest
215 Expedition 59 Oleg Kononenko Aleksej Ovčinin 6,02 29-05-19 15:42 29-05-19 21:43 Pirs
216 Expedition 60 Tyler Hague Andrew Morgan 6,53 21-08-19 12:27 21-08-19 18:59 Quest
217 Expedition 61 Christina Hammock Andrew Morgan 7,02 06-10-19 11:39 06-10-19 18:40 Quest
218 Expedition 61 Andrew Morgan Christina Hammock 6,75 11-10-19 11:38 11-10-19 18:23 Quest
219 Expedition 61 Christina Hammock Jessica Meir 7,28 18-10-19 11:38 18-10-19 18:55 Quest
220 Expedition 61 Luca Parmitano Andrew Morgan 6,65 15-11-19 11:39 15-11-19 18:18 Quest
221 Expedition 61 Luca Parmitano Andrew Morgan 6,55 22-11-19 12:02 22-11-19 18:35 Quest
222 Expedition 61 Luca Parmitano Andrew Morgan 6,03 02-12-19 11:31 02-12-19 17:33 Quest
223 Expedition 61 Jessica Meir Christina Hammock 7,48 15-01-20 11:35 15-01-20 19:04 Quest
224 Expedition 61 Jessica Meir Christina Hammock 6,97 20-01-20 11:35 20-01-20 18:33 Quest
225 Expedition 61 Andrew Morgan Luca Parmitano 6,27 25-01-20 12:04 25-01-20 18:20 Quest
226 Expedition 63 Christopher Cassidy Robert Behnken 6,12 26-06-20 11:32 26-06-20 17:39 Quest
227 Expedition 63 Christopher Cassidy Robert Behnken 6,02 01-07-20 11:13 01-07-20 17:14 Quest
228 Expedition 63 Robert Behnken Christopher Cassidy 6 16-07-20 11:10 16-07-20 17:10 Quest
229 Expedition 63 Robert Behnken Christopher Cassidy 5,48 21-07-20 11:12 21-07-20 16:41 Quest

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Paolo Baldo

Sono nato a Trento, dove vivo e lavoro. Fra i miei molti interessi l'astronautica occupa un posto privilegiato. La mia passione mi ha portato ad incontrare molti astronauti (di tutti i programmi spaziali occidentali, dal Mercury all'ISS) in svariati eventi pubblici.

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